Sandra asks…

Help with paper on Hamlet: The impossibility of uncertainty?

I need to write a paper that ties a theme from Hamlet to modern day. I’ve narrowed it down and think I’m going to choose “The impossibility of uncertainty” as the paper topic/theme. I have no idea where to start though. I need help with a thesis and different points to make throughout the paper. Any input is appreciated.

Helen answers:

Sir, I cannot.
What, my lord?
Make you a wholesome answer; my wit’s diseased: but,
sir, such answer as I can make, you shall command; – Questions of the Play

Bernardo opens the play with a question: “who’s there?”. That question reverberates throughout the play.

Who’s there?… What, is Horatio there?… Looks it not like the king? Is it not like the king? . So like the king that was and is the question of these wars .How is it that the clouds still hang on you?. Methinks I see my father. Where, my lord? In my mind’s eye Must I remember?… What does this mean, my lord? What may this mean… Why is this? Wherefore? What should we do?… Why, what should be the fear?… What if it… Deprive your sovereignty of reason and draw you into madness? Whither wilt thou lead me? Thou comest in such a questionable shape… Canst work i’ the earth so fast? What is’t but to be nothing else but mad? Will you walk out of the air, my lord? Into my grave… And can you, by no drift of circumstance, get from him why he puts on this confusion, grating so harshly all his days of quiet with turbulent and dangerous lunacy?… Some necessary question of the play be then to be considered. To be or not to be. That is the question. So like the king that was and is the question of these wars Who, I?… What is your cause of distemper? Sir, I lack advancement. How can that be, when you have the voice of the king himself for your succession in Denmark? Sir, I cannot make you a wholesome answer; my wit’s diseased..Try what repentance can: what can it not? Yet what can it when one can not repent? Two thousand souls and twenty thousand ducats will not debate the question of this straw…..must the inheritor himself have no more, ha?…How came he mad?…Whose grave’s this, sirrah?… Is’t not perfect conscience, to quit him with this arm? And is’t not to be damn’d, to let this canker of our nature come in further evil?.. Crowner’s quest…answer to the purpose the king’s purpose confess thyself..when you are asked this question next, say ‘a grave-maker’. … If your lordship would vouchsafe the answer…How if I answer ‘no’?.. Who does it, then? His madness… Is thy union here?.. What warlike noise is this?.

(My wit really is diseased. Yahoo is giving me an error every time I try to link to my website.)

I’ll try a link to Hamlet:

Yahoo gives me an error when I link ONLY to my website. If I include an additonal link to another website, then there’s no error. It just starting doing this. Weird.

John asks…

Can I have Lasik if I have Rheumatoid Arthritis?

I have Rheumatoid Arthritis and am looking to Lasik corrective surgery.

Helen answers:

Here is some information for you if you have more questions feel free to email me at, hope this helps answer your question.

Research: LASIK found safe for patients with autoimmune diseases
Sep 11, 2006

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has listed autoimmune disease as a contraindication to LASIK and other forms of laser refractive surgery. However, there has been little research to investigate the actual risk of LASIK-related complications in patients with autoimmune disease.

Researchers recently conducted a retrospective study of 49 eyes of 26 patients with a history of autoimmune disease that had LASIK surgery at Maloney Vision Institute (Los Angeles, CA) between 1998 and 2004. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of LASIK in patients with inactive or well-controlled autoimmune diseases, such as:
systemic lupus erythematosus
rheumatoid arthritis
irritable bowel syndrome
Grave’s disease
Crohn’s disease
Reiter’s syndrome

Study methods

A total of 27,660 refractive surgery procedures (including enhancements) were performed at the Maloney Vision Institute between June 1, 1998 and October 1, 2004. LASIK was performed on 49 eyes of 26 patients with well-controlled autoimmune disease. The most common autoimmune conditions were systemic lupus erythematosus (7 patients) and rheumatoid arthritis (6 patients).

All patients in the study had their LASIK performed with a Hansatome microkeratome (Bausch & Lomb Surgical, Inc.) and a Star S2, S3 or S4 excimer laser (VISX, Inc.).


No eyes in the patients with autoimmune disease developed severe complications after LASIK.

Maria asks…

Im 13 & have just been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism please help?

I’ve been in pain my eye is swollen I’m always gittery I can’t keep still its hard too talk right & my hair is falling out a lot I just don’t know what too do too co-op with it please help

Helen answers:

Hyperthyroidism is overactivity of the thyroid gland that leads to high levels of thyroid hormones and speeding up of vital body functions.
If the cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves’ disease, eye symptoms include puffiness around the eyes, increased tear formation, irritation, and unusual sensitivity to light. Two distinctive additional symptoms may occur: bulging eyes and double vision

Carol asks…

what is the meaning of Dual retraction sysndrom ?

what is the meaning of Dual retraction sysndrom ? i m having this problem in my right eye with ambliopia and my right eye is squint also.
what are the treatments available for it.?

Helen answers:

Signs and symptoms: Duane’s retraction syndrome (DRS) is a congenital disorder of ocular motility characterized by lim ited abduction, adduction or both. It is unilateral in 80% of cases.1

The hall mark clinical signs are the classic retraction of the globe and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on eye movement. Studies reveal a preponderance of cases (66%) involving the left eye.1-7 Other observations include exotropia in primary gaze (35%),3 crocodile-tearing phenomena (tearing while chewing, 12%),3 abduction deficit, globe retraction on attempted adduction, and compensatory face turn to maintain single simultaneous binocular vision. Undiagnosed or uncorrected DRS can lead to amblyopic vision loss.

DRS has three presentations. Type 1 occurs in 85% of cases and predominantly in females (60%).2-4 It presents with an abduction palsy with globe retraction on attempted adduction. Type II DRS occurs in 14% of cases, 2-4 and presents as an adduction palsy, globe retraction on attempted adduction and intact abduction. Type-III DRS comprises 1% of cases; both abduction and adduction limitations with any form of horizontal strabismus characterize this type. All cases may present with the “tether” phenomenon, with over-elevation or over-depression in adduction.

Thirty percent of cases have systemic associations, which include limb abnormalities, cardiac abnormalities, neurosensory deafness, Goldenhar’s syndrome, Klippel-Feil syndrome, congenital gustolacrimal reflex and Wildervanck association.

Pathophysiology: Abnormal development of the cells in the abducens nucleolus characterizes DRS, resulting in restricted or absent abduction, and erroneous innervation of the lateral rectus by branches emanating from oculomotor nuclei.

Some neuropathologists have reported that DRS patients lack a cranial nerve VI nucleolus and nerve. Others maintain that lateral rectus dual innervation is present in at least the type I and II variants. While the exact pathophysiology remains controversial, mechanically DRS involves the development of an abnormal communication with the lateral rectus via the inferior division of cranial nerve III. This “miswiring” produces a dual electromyographic firing of the recti upon attempted adduction, resulting in globe retraction and palpebral fissure narrowing.

Management: Patients with DRS often develop peculiar but effective sensory adaptations. Surgery is only required when there is a risk of significant amblyopia.

The amount of esotropia or exotropia with DRS rarely exceeds 30.00D prism. Remedies include medial rectus recession, lateral rectus resection or both. Clinicians can improve the “tether” phenomenon by placing horizontal rectus positioning sutures or by splitting the lateral rectus into a “Y” and resuturing sections above and below the original axis. Full-correction spectacles, patch therapy or accommodative facility training can help avoid or mitigate amblyopia.

Clinical Pearls

DRS exists in 0.1 % of the general population and accounts for 1-5 % of all strabismus cases. 2-5
Because systemic abnormalities exist in many cases, a complete health examination with blood work, auditory testing and EKG is essential.
Differential diagnosis includes epicanthal folds, congenital esotropia, convergence excess, accommodative excess, excessive hyperopia with resultant esotropia, Brown’s syndrome, double elevator palsy, Möbius syndrome, congenital fibrosis syndrome, CN VI palsy, Grave’s disease and orbital pseudotumor.
Children benefit most from surgical intervention. Typically, surgery is appropriate for adults only when the strabismus is cosmetically unacceptable.

Susan asks…

I have heard good things about MASTER GARDENERS. How do you become one and how much do they get paid?

Helen answers:

BACK OFF FOLKS, LETS HEAR IT FROM THE HORSES MOUTH. I have been a state certified MASTER GARDENER since 1989. Prior to that, I was a military officer, worked for the government and was twice elected to public office in another state. But I had no life before becoming a MASTER GARDENER.
It all starts with a small notice in the Sunday Paper, “Become a Master Gardener”. So you call & they set you up for an interview. You and the 657 others seeking the 45 openings allowed for trainees that year. Make it thru the first cut & you feel lucky. Make it thru the 2nd cut & you think you got it made. Your 3rd interview is done by two teams of sitting Master Gardeners. One team playing good cop, the other playing bad cop. I’ve seen grown men leave with tears in their eyes. Then you wait for the letter. And you wait for the letter…. And you wait. If you get the thin envelope, your done for. That’s the “Dear John” from the senior advisor. They will put you on the top of the call back list for the following year. You and the hundred or so others who crashed & burned at interview 3. But if you get the fat envelope, the one with your instructions, class assignments, necessary supplies list, etc. Youre on your way! On your way to weeks & weeks of intensive instruction by all the top universery know-it-alls in their field. Every week a new subject… Entomology, nematology, botany, agricultural this & that. Pesticide, biological control, diagnosing problems & IPM. Lots of IPM! Patology, diseases, toxicolopy, pathogens & invertebrate pests. Weed identification, soils, irrigation, snails, slugs, roof rats & microbials. Soaps, oils, poisons & more IPM. And that’s just the tip of the iceburg. You don’t see a healthy plant for weeks. Everything you study is dead, near dead or crawling with tiny things. They hang this big bell by the back door of the Farm Advisor’s office. Dropouts are invited to ring out at any time… No hard feelings. Hell, a first year student at West Point has it easier. After class you go home & study. Your own garden goes to crap ’cause your face is always in a book. Then, before you know it it’s finial exam week. You look around the class at all the empty seats of those who couldn’t take it & worry if you are the next to go running for the bell? Test infront of you & your brain goes limp. You know there will be more empty seats in a matter of hours. After the test, you go home and wait for the letter. It’s simple. You get a letter,or you don’t. With every passing day you feel sicker when it doesn’t come. They don’t tell you that the head of the program always takes a two week vacation the day after the test.
Well to make along story short, if you score over 80% on the test, your in. A Master Gardener for one year. During that year, a new student Master Gardener must put in a minimun number of volunteer hours (Twice the number of hours required of a veteran Master Gardener). You are also required to put in a certain number of continuing education hours on top of your volunteer time. Meet minimum requirements and you get recertified each year. Can’t reach the mimimun required, there are another 600 or so waiting in the wings to take your place. We pay for our own materials & supplies. The State & County pay for nothing. Called out to a garden club to give a talk, it’s your gas money. Being a MASTER GARDENER is all give & no take. People will treet you like a God one minute, and like you owe them something the next. But the training & education you get, money can’t buy. The average burn out rate is four years. Servive 10 years & they give you a gold colored name tag. After 15 years, your name goes on a wooden board outside the Farm Advisor’s office? After 20 years you get a grave sight at U C Davis… For half off.
When I started I drove a small, two seat, German sports car. I now drive a 15 year old Blazer that needs brakes. Ya, we get paid real well. Just like we get paid at here at answers.

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